Globalization is a historical process of world integration in the economic, political, technological, social, and cultural spheres, which has turned the world into an increasingly interconnected place.
The progressive dissolution of the economic and communicational borders has generated a capitalist expansion. This, in turn, has enabled global financial transactions and investments geared towards distant or emerging markets, in terms that in the past were very difficult, highly expensive or unviable.
Hence, the globalization process has modified the way in which countries and subjects interact, and has generated a great impact in economic (labor market, international trade), political (establishment of democratic systems, respect for human rights) and , access to education, technology, among others.
Characteristics of globalization
The most important are the following:
- it is universal because it encompasses all aspects of human and social life
- it is uneven and asymmetric since it affects very different forms according to the level of development of each country and its share of participation in world power
- it is unpredictable, that is, its results cannot be anticipated;
- it depends on connectivity and telecommunications
- it involves the spatial reorganization of production
- it globalizes the merchandise and favors the uniformity of consumption
- it forms a global financial model.
Advantages and disadvantages of globalization
Globalization leads to a set of actions in general that have both positive and negative aspects, hence the advantages and disadvantages of this great integration process are mentioned.
- Development of a global market;
- greater access to information;
- circulation of imported goods and products;
- increase in foreign investment;
- exponential development of international trade;
- fostering international relations;
- cultural exchange processes;
- increased tourism;
- technological development.
- Incapacity of the national State as an entity of control and administration
- hindering or strangling the development of native trade
- increase in foreign interventionism
- the concentration of capital in large multinational or transnational groups
- a widening gap in wealth distribution
- uniformity in consumption.
However, globalization has generated a series of advantages and disadvantages that have occurred over time and that have been seen as a way to overcome limitations and offer contributions. However, it also has a counterparty whose risks are increasingly noticeable.
Advantages of globalization
Globalization has been a process that has encouraged and promoted the integration of societies through different activities that have been the driving force behind a significant percentage of human development.
- Free trade of goods and services worldwide.
- Decrease in production costs.
- Greater business competitiveness and product quality.
- Technological development that favors the levels and speed of production.
- Greater job offer in developing countries, since multinational companies are strategically installed in them because the raw material and labor are cheaper.
- Legislation at the national and international level has been modified in order to encourage trade, cooperation plans, legal security, commercial security, new public policies, among others.
- The incentive of tourist activity.
Disadvantages of globalization
In general terms, the disadvantages that stand out from globalization are those that are generating difficulties in various areas of human development and limiting its drive.
- Developed countries with great potentials and economic scope have imposed themselves on those developing countries and those with minor economies. This generates a great economic imbalance.
- Unemployment increases in developed countries because multinational companies open offices in developing countries, where labor and raw materials are cheaper.
- National identity may be negatively affected as a result of developed countries overlapping their cultures over those of developing countries, through strong commercial and media momentum.
- Minority languages are lost.
Origin of globalization
It is usually pointed out that it had its beginning with the arrival of Columbus in America at the end of the 15th century and with the colonization by European powers around the world.
This process was exponentially accentuated from the Industrial Revolution of the XIX century and the rearmament of capitalism, and it acquired its full form from the second half of the XX century.
Globalization is the result of the consolidation of capitalism and the need to expand the flow of world trade, as well as the main technological advances, especially in communicational matters.
Innovations in the field of telecommunications and computing, especially the Internet, have played a decisive role in building a globalized world.
Causes and consequences of globalization
- the international geopolitics of the 20th century:
- the end of the Cold War;
- the consolidation of the capitalist model;
- the need to expand economic markets;
- the revolution in telecommunications and informatics;
- the liberation of capital markets.
The consequences of globalization can be listed
- Wealth is concentrated in developed countries and only 25% of international investments go to developing nations, which has an impact on an increase in the number of people living in extreme poverty.
- Some economists argue that, in recent decades, globalization and the scientific and technological revolution (responsible for the automation of production) have been the main causes of the increase in unemployment.
- The critical authors of globalization also maintain that it favors the loss of traditional cultural identities in favor of an idea of global culture, imposed by the influence of the rest of the power of world.
The emergence of economic blocks , that is, countries that associate to promote trade relations, as is the case of Mercosur or the European Union , is the result of this economic process.
In the 21st century, economic globalization intensified further, achieving an impact on the labor market and international trade.
Globalization has encouraged the creation and development of different mechanisms to respond and solve endless problems that have become global and that affects us all, for example, climate change, poverty rates, use of natural resources, among others.
For this reason, international institutions and organizations have been created, for example, the United Nations (UN), in order to face these problems and provide the best possible solution.
We live in an interconnected world, information is shared at a greater speed and distance, people are more informed about what is happening in their country and around the world through the various communication channels that exist.
The means of transport have also benefited from technological and scientific advances, for example, mechanisms have been developed to reduce fuel consumption and pollution levels, vehicles have greater security systems, among others.
Expanding consumer markets and the exchange of cultural goods and services have produced important connections between countries and communities through cinema, television, literature, music, gastronomy, fashion, theater, museums, among others.
This has various positive and negative aspects. Some highlight the dissemination of universal values, greater access to information and cultural exchange.
However, smaller social groups are affected by the consumption of more far-reaching cultural products and even the loss of certain values of their own.
What is Cultural Globalization:
Globalization is a process that covers, in principle, the economic, political and social aspects, but that affects both the positive and negative ways of the diversity of cultures that exist.
Globalization, as a capitalist mode of production and development that seeks the well-being of society in general, has imposed throughout the world various economic, industrial, technological and political patterns that have upset various cultural identities.
That is, cultural globalization is the result of a set of measures that seek the continuous development of society and, which has fostered and greatly increased international relations and cultural exchanges.
In this way, millions of people in the world have interconnected, have met and met for various reasons, which has allowed cultural exchange.
Now, taking into account the economic and industrial development driven by globalization, it can be further appreciated how this phenomenon has caused large-scale cultural changes, both in the consumption of goods and services.
It should also be mentioned that the important technological development in the area of communication has made social, work, academic, family relationships, among others, much easier and faster without losing contacts.
It is from this coming and going of information and exchange of goods and services that the different cultural expressions that exist have been interconnected and, as a result of this sum, a globalized culture is being formed of which all individuals have a notion.
For example, listening to the song of a famous musical band on all continents without the language difference being a barrier, since all fans sing it alike.
Consequences of cultural globalization
The main consequences and changes caused by cultural globalization are presented below.
- A homogeneous culture has been generated from a set of heterogeneous cultures, encompassing general customs and recognized by individuals.
- Global interconnections have made it possible to discover the great cultural diversity that exists.
- Every day there are more societies that, different as they are, share more things in common due to globalization.
- People are concerned with learning the most widely spoken languages in order to expand their knowledge and possibilities for development.
- The media and audiovisual media have promoted, in various ways, the development of cultural globalization by imposing brands, trends, linguistic expressions, among others, that are recognized by a large number of individuals.
- Cultural exchange and multiculturalism increases.
- The cultures of regions or towns with the smallest number of people have been influenced by the cultures of the largest and most influential regions or countries, leaving aside their own identity.
- Cultural globalization is a dynamic phenomenon that is generated from commercial, political and social exchanges, making it difficult for culture not to be affected and modified.
- Cultural globalization can lead to the loss of a nation’s sovereignty.
- The consumption of big brands takes precedence over the consumption and promotion of what is made and represents the culture of a country or region.
Taking this meaning into account, it can be affirmed that a globalized world, in the social sphere, is one in which all human beings are considered equal regardless of their social class, religious beliefs or cultures.
7 key features of globalization
Globalization is an economic, political, technological, social and cultural process that has transformed the world into an increasingly interconnected place and that has affected, in various ways, markets, technologies, commercializations, communications, policies and industrial developments at the international level. global.
Globalization has been a consequence of capitalism in the search to expand international trade, production and consumption. The internet and technological development have been key to globalization.
The key and most important characteristics of globalization are the following:
1. Free trade
As the globalization process grows, the development and implementation of various free trade agreements for goods and services between countries of the same or a different continent or region is encouraged, in order to expand markets and increase the economy and productivity. .
Globalization promoted the continuous industrial development of countries with strong economies and, in turn, favored the industrialization of a large number of developing countries, especially in Latin America and Asia. This also generated greater international economic integration and jobs.
3. World financial system
The financial system became international and gave rise to the world capital market, for this reason institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have a very important responsibility in terms of decision-making and formulation of financial policies.
Large international corporations have played a fundamental role in the economic and financial process throughout globalization, and have received support from these financial institutions.
4. Economic globalization
Economic globalization refers to the expansion of various economic activities that generated an accelerated exchange of goods, goods and services at the national and international level.
For this reason, various market regulations have been created in order to observe and analyze the economic activity of a country and of the world in general.
5. Connectivity and telecommunications
The development of technologies, communications and the internet have been fundamental pieces for globalization.
People, politicians, entrepreneurs, among many others, seek fast and borderless communications, in order to share and exchange knowledge, information, technology and culture between countries and regions.
6. Migratory movement
Globalization promoted the migratory movement of millions of people in search of a better job and quality of life.
Multinational companies or corporations began to expand their facilities worldwide and to generate new jobs and the transit of personnel from one country to another, depending on the individual’s training, education and disposition.
7. New world order
For example, in the economic field, new markets are opened, free trade is fostered in order to link national and international economies.
Politically, regulations were established that delimited an order, rights and freedoms to trade. And culturally, customs, values and traditions were exchanged.
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